Bio-nanotechnology is concerned with molecular-scale properties and applications of biological nanostructures and, as such, it is at the interface between chemical, biological and the physical science.
Nanomaterials that combine one or more separate components in order to take advantage of the best properties of each component. In nanocomposites, nanoparticles (clay, metal, carbon nanotubes) act as fillers in a matrix, usually polymer matrix.
Application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies techniques in the field of electronics. Nanotech applications in the field of electronics are especially promising: computer chips, optoelectronics, information storage, nanocomputers, sensors.
Devices built starting from individual atoms.Their size is measured in nanometers. The idea is that the assembler will be able to rearrange atoms from raw material in order to produce useful items.
Manufacturing at the nanoscale. The industrial application of nanotechnologies.
Nanomaterials can be defined as materials which have structured components with at least one dimension smaller than 100nm. Materials that have one dimension in the nanoscale are layers, such as a thin film or surface coatings. Some of the features on computer chips come in this category. Materials that are nanoscaled in two dimensions include nanowires and nanotubes. Materials that are nanoscaled in three dimensions are particles, for example precipitates, colloids and quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials). Nanocrystalline materials, made up of nanometre-sized grains, also fall into this category.
Application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies techniques in the field of medicine. Areas such as disease diagnosis, drug delivery and molecular imaging are being intensively researched. Medical-related products containing nanoparticles are currently produced.
One nanometre (nm) is equal to one-billionth of a metre, 10-9m. Atoms are below a nanometre in size, whereas many molecules, including some proteins, range from a nanometre upwards.
Nanometrology is the science of measurement at the nanoscale level. Nanometrology has a crucial role in order to produce nanomaterials and devices with a high degree of accuracy and reliability (nanomanufacturing).
Nanoparticles are particles with a diameter smaller than 100nm that exhibit new or enhanced size-dependent properties compared with larger particles of the same material.
Scale with nanometre order of magnitude.
Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale.
Nanostructure is a structure with its parts arranged in the nanometre scale.
Nanotechnologies are the design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems at nanometre scale.
Nanotube (Carbon nanotubes):
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered by SumioIijima in 1991. Carbon nanotubes are fullerene-related structures which consist of rolled graphene sheets. There are two types of CNT: single-walled (one tube) or multi-walled (more tubes). Both are typically a few nanometres in diameter and several micrometres to centimetres long.